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Use of Selective Etchants to Identify Carbides in Steel

Etchants in the study – those used to darken the matrix.

Klemm’s I – Colors ferrite, limited to carbon and alloy steels Beraha’s “B0” – Darkens matrix in carbon, alloy steels, tool steels and martensitic stainless steels Beraha’s Sulfamic Acid No. 4 – Colors matrix in tool steels, martensitic and PH stainless steels


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.