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Understanding Heat Treatment Results Using Metallography – Version 2

As Hot Rolled Microstructures

  • Microstructure of hot-rolled Fe –0.94% C –0.51% Mn–0.32% Si –1.34% Cr alloy steel revealing a fully pearliticmatrix. Picralrevealed a network of cementite in the prior-austenite grain boundaries (arrows). This is not visible using nital. Originals at 1000X.
  • Microstructure of as-rolled Fe –1.31% C –0.35% Mn–0.25% Si high-carbon water hardenabletool steel. Note the Widmanstättenintragranularcementite that precipitated as pro-eutectoid cementite before the eutectoid reaction. Originals at 1000X.
  • Microstructure of the as-rolled Fe –1.31% C –0.35% Mn–0.25% Si specimen with the intergranular carbide network clearly visible after etching with alkaline sodium picrate, 90 °C –60 s. Original at 500X magnification. Note also some intragranular Widmanstätten cementite.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.