Currently set to Index
Currently set to Follow

Standards for Metallography

Why Do We Need Standards?

  • Standards are prepared by experts on the subject and they represent a summary of the current state of knowledge on the best practices to use.
  • If everyone uses the same, best method then results between laboratories will have better reproducibility (i.e., agreement between laboratories)
  • National and international standards are continuously revised and kept up-to-date with changes in technology.

Types of Standards

  • Company standards relate best to the local needs, but the methods may be poorly developed and defined
  • National standards developed by industry/academic experts in the particular field but the practices and quality of the standards vary from country to country
  • International standards –these are written, and balloted in a number of countries with leading technology and should represent the best ideas on a given test method (ISO)
  • ISO standards tend to be short in length and contain only the basic information required
  • ASTM test method standards give more background details and have precision and bias data based on interlaboratory test programs (“round robins”)


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.