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Microstructures of Hot and Cold Worked Metals and Alloys

HotWorking Temperatures Hot working occurs at a temperature that is relatively close to the melting point of the metal or alloy. This temperature is normally well above the normal recrystallization temperature. A homogenization cycle may be used prior to hot working to permit alloy diffusion and enhance chemical homogeneity. Too high a temperature must be avoided so that “burning” or grain-boundary liquation (incipient melting) does not occur. The temperature during the last hot working pass is also important as it controls the grain size in the as-rolled microstructure and may influence problems such as “banding” in steels. If the finishing temperature is low, recrystallization will not occur and the grain structure will be coarse and elongated and will contain residual deformation (dislocations). “Warm” working occurs below the recrystallization temperature.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.