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Microstructure of Nickel, Cobalt and their Alloys

Lucas’ Reagent

  • 50 mL lactic acid
  • 150 mL HCl
  • 3 g oxalic acid

Lucas’s reagent for Fe-Ni, Ni- and Co-base superalloys. Use electrolytically at 1-2 V dc, for 10-20 s. Electrolyte can be made as a stock solution.

Molybdic Acid Reagent

  • 100 mL water
  • 100 mL HCl
  • 100 mL HNO3
  • 3 g molybdic acid

Molybdic acid reagent to reveal the dendritic structure of cast Ni-base superalloys. Mix and alloy to stand >1 h before use. Immerse specimen for several seconds. Can be stored.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.