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Microstructure of Historical Objects – Copper-Based Alloys

 George’s Rules for Pain-free Specimen Preparation

  • Use gentlest possible sectioning equipment: abrasive cut off saw or precision saw
  • Use blades developed for metallography, not for production cutting
  • Avoid shrinkage gaps when mounting
  • Start grinding with the finest possible abrasive
  • Keep the polishing surface uniformly covered with abrasive and lubricant
  • Use proper loads


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.