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Microstructure of Ferrous Alloys

Constituents of Steel

Products of diffusion-controlled transformations.
Products of diffusionless athermal transformations.
Products of precipitation before or during solidification due to limited solid solubility, or pick-up from external sources.

Grain Boundaries

The interface between two grains where the crystal lattice changes from that of one grain to that of the other grain.
There are three types of grain boundaries in Fe-based alloys: ferrite, austenite and prior-austenite. The prioraustenite grain boundaries are those of the parent (austenite) phase before transformation. Ferrite and austenite grain boundaries are those of the product phase, although there are compositions where allotropic transformations do not occur.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.