Microstructure of Carbon- and Low-Alloy Steels

Wrought Iron

Microstructure of wrought iron (Fe – 0.07% C – 0.06% Mn – 0.2% Si – 0.16% P – 0.02% S) etched with 2% nital revealing slag stringers and ferrite (alpha) grains and grain boundaries. Original at 500X.

Electrical Iron

Electrical iron (<0.02% C) etched with 2% nital revealing a ferrite grain structure.
Motor Lamination Steel – Surface of electrical steel specimen showing large sub-surface ferrite grains. Tint etched with Klemm’s I. The grain orientations are random (note the random distribution of colored ferrite grains). Original at 100X. Viewed with crossed polars + sensitive tint.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.