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Microstructural Analysis of Steel from the World Trade Center Buildings 7, and 1 or 2

Important Observations by FEMA Concerning WTC 71.

  1. The collapse of WTC 7 is of significant interest because it appears that the collapse was due primarily to fire, rather than any impact damage from the collapsing WTC 1 tower. There is no history or record of a fire induced collapse in a fire protected steel building prior to this event.
  2. Collapse is consistent with an initial failure that occurredinternally in the lower floors toward the east side of the building. Fire ignition likely started as a result of falling debris from WTC 1 damaging the south face of WTC 7 (Floors 6,7, 8, 10, 11, 19). The building main structural support members are located in the 5th to the 7th floors.
  3. The fire progressed throughout the day, virtually unimpeded by manual or automatic fire suppression systems. The fire got hotter as time progressed. There is no physical, photographic or other evidence to either substantiate or refute the discharge of fuel oil from the pipingsystem. “Although the total diesel fuel on the premises contained massive potential energy, the best hypothesis has only a low probability of occurrence”


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.