In 1925, Smith and Sandland of the UK developed a hardness test using a square-based pyramidal shape made from diamond to overcome the limitations of the Brinell test (developed in 1900) that used a spherical hardened steel ball (metals harder than about 48 HRC can not be tested). The indenter shape chosen produced hardness numbers similar to those obtained by the Brinell test.
The first low-load Vickers tester was built by Lips and Sack in 1936.
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The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.