The measurement of grain size in annealed face-centered cubic (fcc) metals that exhibit annealing twins is complicated by etching problems and by the presence of the twin boundaries. In a few cases, one can successfully etch certain fcc metals developing only the grain boundaries [1,2]. Such techniques are very useful but have not been developed for most fcc metals and alloys.
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The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.