Light Microscopy

Nature of Light in Microscopy

Amplitude – light intensity
Wavelength – color;
Phase displacement;
Polarization – one plane of vibration

Laws of Refraction and Reflection

Part of the incident light ray is reflected and part is
refracted; the angle of reflection equals the angle of
incidence, i.e., θ = Φ


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.