Introduction to Stereological Principles

Although the fundamental relationships for stereology, the foundation of quantitative metallography, have been known for some time, implementation of these concepts has been restricted when performed manually due to the tremendous effort required. Further, while humans are quite good with pattern recognition, as in the identification of complex structures, they are less satisfactory for repetitive counting.

Many years ago, George Moore (1) and members of ASTM Committee E-4 on Metallography conducted a simple counting experiment. About 400 people were asked to count the number of times the letter “e” appeared in a paragraph without striking out the letters as they counted. The correct answer was obtained by only 3.8% of the people. Results were not Gaussian, however, as only 4.3% had higher values while 92% had lower values, some much lower. The standard deviation was 12.28. This experiment revealed a basic problem with manual ratings. In this case the subject was one very familiar to the test subjects, yet only 3.8% obtained the correct count. What degree of counting accuracy can be expected when the subject is less familiar, such as microstructural features? Image analyzers, on the other hand, are quite good at counting but not as competent at recognizing features of interest. Fortunately, there has been tremendous progress in the development of powerful, user-friendly image analyzers over the past two decades.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.