Introduction to Metallography

What is Metallography

Metallography is the study of microstructure, how it is produced by composition and processing control, and the relationship between microstructure, mechanical and physical properties, and performance or service behavior. To examine the microstructure, we must prepare specimens properly so that the true structure, free of artifacts due to preparation, can be observed and properly identified, measured and interpreted.

What is Microstructure

Microstructure is the structure of a suitably prepare specimen as revealed by a microscope Microstructure consists of phases and/or constituents.
A phase is a physically homogeneous, mechanically separable portion of a material system. A constituent is a phase or combination of phases, which occurs in a characteristic configuration in an alloy microstructure.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.