Steels used for tools and dies differ from most other steels in several aspects. First they are used in the manufacture of other products by a variety of forming processes. Second, tools and dies are generally used at higher hardnesses than most other steel products; 58 to 68 Rockwell C is a typical range. Dies for plastic molding or hot working are usually used at lower hardnesses, typically from 30 to 55 Rockwell C.
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The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.