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Fracture Modes

Transgranular: Cracking across grains without preference for grain boundaries
Intergranular: Cracking between grains, the crack propagates in the grain boundaries

Fracture Mechanisms

  • Ductile
  • Brittle
  • Fatigue
  • Torsion
  • Stress Corrosion Cracking
  • Liquid Metal Embrittlement
  • Hydrogen Embrittlement and HIC
  • Creep
  • Wear


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.