Etching to Reveal Microstructure


Low magnification evaluation; deeper etch
Time is less reliable than appearance
Best results occur when etching right after polishing, time can create a passive surface
High magnification evaluation; shallow etch
If you are not satisfied, an etch-repolish-etch sequence may improve the results


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.