Equilibrium Phase Diagrams

Hexagonal-Close Packed Crystal Lattice

Each of the interior atoms has a slice in an adjoining cell. In turn, there are three slices within this cell. Thus the three whole atoms are contributed to the cell. The two atoms centered on the top and bottom faces are each half within the cell. These two halves combined contribute one whole atom. Each of the twelve corners has one-sixth of an atom. Thus all twelve corner atoms combined contribute two whole atoms.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.