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Color Metallography – Paper

Natural Color

  • Rare in Metals
  • Elemental Copper in Steel
  • Plated Metals (Cu on Fe, etc.)
  • Intermetallics (AuAl2)

Microstructure of a copper-infiltrated, porous powder metallurgy high-carbon steel (after heat treatment which produced coarse martensite and retained austenite. The copper, which did not completely fill the pores (arrows), exhibits its natural yellow color and twins can be seen (green arrows). The martensite was revealed with Beraha’s 10/3 reagent, similar to Klemm’s I, and viewed with polarized light plus sensitive tint.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.