Automating the JK Inclusion Analysis

A procedure has been developed that through the use of the Leitz Texture Analyzer System (TAS) makes it possible to automatically obtain JK-inclusion ratings consonant with those obtained manually by ASTM E45, Methods A and D, which provide qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. In the new procedure, sulfide inclusions are detected by gray-level differences because image analysis techniques cannot distinguish between type-A sulfides and type-C silicates on the basis of morphological differences alone. Next, the stringered and globular oxides are seperated. Type-B and Type-C stringered oxides are seperated on the basis of the length of the largest oxides in a stringer. After each inclusion type has been isolated, the required measurement is made and the severity is calculated. For each type, the inclusions are further seperated according to thickness. Reproducibility of ratings with the new procedure is quite good, and the results obtained are in good agreement with those done manually.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.