Advances in Metallography

Sectioning of Specimens

“Chop” style cuttershave variable pressure over the cut which degrades the microstructure. Minimum area of contact cutting (MACC) maintains pressure more constantly yielding less damage.

Chop vs. Orbital Cutting

With the chop cutter the contact area, when cutting a round bar,is very small initially, increases to a maximum, then decreases to a point contact. Thus, the pressure varies through the cut. This reduces cutting efficiencyand increases heat generation. Orbital cutting reduces this variation. When the wheel lifts out of the cut, coolant flows into the cut which reduces sectioning damage.


The articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.