Microstructure of Magnesium and Its Alloys

Sand Cast Alloys

Microstructure of sand-cast AZ91D (Mg – 9% Al – 0.25% Mn – 0.7% Zn – 0.0008% Be) revealed (left) using the glycol etch and viewing with polarized light plus a sensitive tint filter; and (right) after etching with the acetic-glycol reagent and viewing in bright field illumination. The magnification bars are 100 and 50 μm, left and right, respectively. Note the mechanical twins at the surface.

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Microstructure of Copper and Copper Alloys

Native Copper - Microstructure of native copper (112 HV). Note the extensive slip lines. Color micrograph was taken with crossed polarized light plus sensitive tint.
High-Purity Copper (99.89%) - Microstructure of hot extruded, cold worked and annealed (500 °C) high-purity copper etched with equal parts ammonium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide (3% conc), 46 HV.
High-Purity Copper (99.89%) - Microstructure of hot extruded, cold worked and annealed (500 °C) high-purity copper etched with klemms III and Beraha’s PbS tint etches and viewed with polarized light plus sensitive tint, 46 HV.

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Metallography of Titanium and Its Alloys

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS ON PREPARATION METHODS

  • Use the gentlest possible cutting method to minimize cutting damage and yield a smooth surface
  • SiC paper may be used for first grinding step
  • Start with the finest possible SiC grit size, P280 or P400, to minimize grinding damage
  • Diamond in slurry or suspension form in small sizes (< 6 μm) may become embedded in the surface of soft metals
  • Use diamond in paste form for sizes < 6 μm for soft metals To reduce relief, use napless cloths

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Indium Based Solders

Preparation of In-based Solder Alloys

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resourcesThe articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.

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