The Aluminum-Silicon Phase Diagram and Eutectic Modifications

The Aluminum-Silicon Phase Diagram and Eutectic Modifications

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 February 2013 16:06

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Sn-Based Solders

Preparation of Pb, Pb-Sn and Sn-based Alloys

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 February 2013 16:05

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Preparation of Composites with Al Matrix

Preparation of Composites with Al Matrix

  • It is probably best to cut the specimens with a precision saw, or lowspeed diamond saw. I would try a 15 LC diamond blade, but you will need to dress it occasionally during cutting as the Al matrix is “gummy” and will load up on the blade.
  • Use plenty of water coolant when grinding with the resin-bonded DGD Color disks
  • Charge the cloths with diamond in paste form; press the diamond into the cloth surface with your finger tips and spread it around the surface; then add MetaDi Fluid lubricant. During the polishing cycle, you can squirt on diamond of the same size in suspension form to keep the surface covered. Do not let the cloth surface get dry.
  • With 1-um diamond, use it only in paste form to avoid embedding. One of my colleagues is polishing 1100 Al containing B4C and diamond embedding is a serious problem, even with sizes >1 m, which is not a common problem.

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 February 2013 16:04

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Picric Acid – Hazards and Safe Usage

Picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol, [(NO2)3C6H2OH]) is widely used in metallography labs for the common steel etchants known as picral, a 4% solution in ethanol, Vilella’s reagent, 1 g picric acid and 5 mL HCl and 100 mL ethanol, and alkaline sodium picrate (2 g picric acid, 20 g NaOH, 100 mL water) for coloring M3C and M6C carbides, as well as several other formulations. Picric acid was formulated by Peter Woulfe, a British chemist, in 1771, although Glauber is claimed to have written about it in 1742. The name comes from the Greek word pikros which means bitter, as picric acid has a bitter taste (it is toxic). Initially it was used to dye fabrics yellow. In the early 20th century, workers producing picric acid were sometimes called canaries, because their skin also became stained yellow

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 February 2013 16:03

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Pb-Sn Phase Diagram

High-purity Pb and Sn are very difficult metallographic subjects and the alloys of Pb and Sn are somewhat easier to prepare, but still rather difficult. This Poster lists our preferred preparation procedure. Vibratory polishing is essential for best results. Pollack’s reagent (100 mLwater, 10 g citric acid, 10 g ammonium molybdate) is one of the best etchants for Pband Pb-Snalloys; 2% nitalis a good etch for pure tin..

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 February 2013 16:00

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Pb-Sn and Pb-Free Solders

Preparation of Pb, Pb-Sn and Sn-based Alloys

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 February 2013 15:58

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Microstructure of Titanium and Its Alloys

ABSTRACT

A three-step preparation procedure was developed for titanium and its alloys. Attack polishing is utilized in the third step for optimal results, particularly for imaging alpha-Ti with polarized light. Two-phase α-β alloy specimens and all β alloys are easier to prepare than single-phase α specimens. Kroll’s reagent appears to be adequate for most alloys. A modification of Weck’s reagent was used for color metallography.

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 February 2013 15:51

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resourcesThe articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.

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