Measurement of Extremely Low Inclusion Contents by Image Analysis

Abstract

Image analysis measurements using a stereological approach have been performed on the inclusions in VIM/EBR, VIM/VAR, and VIM/ESR material from the same parent VIM heat of M-50 bearing steel. Tests made on billet samples produced excessively high, inaccurate results due to very fine microshrinkage cavities associated with the carbide due to insufficient hot reduction. Subsequent tests on bar specimens revealed a closer correlation with the calculated volume fractions based on sulfur and oxygen chemical analysis. However, the measured area fractions were consistently lower than the calculated values. Details of the metallographic preparation problems are provided.

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resourcesThe articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.

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