Safety in the Metallography Lab

MSDS Sheets

  • Every laboratory should have a file of Material Safety Data Sheets for all chemicals used in the laboratory
  • When working with a chemical especially when it is the first time the MSDS sheet should be read and all safety guidelines mentioned should be followed.
  • All employees who use hazardous chemicals on the job have a legal “right to know” about the hazards they may face and the ways they can protect themselves from those hazards. Lab workers also have this right.
  • Industrial applications generally use large quantities of a few chemicals while labs tend to use a wide variety of chemicals, but in small quantities
  • OSHA defines “laboratory scale” operations as those that use containers “designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person”

DOWNLOAD THE PRESENTATION HERE

Last Updated on Monday, 11 February 2013 20:27

Hits: 1345

Read more: Safety in the Metallography Lab

Preparation of Ceramics, Cermets, Nitrides, Borides and Sintered Carbides

Abstract

Equipment and consumable supplies for preparing very hard metals, oxides, carbides, borides and nitrides has improved substantially over the past forty years. Due to their high hardness, diamond is the chief abrasive used in cutting, grinding and polishing. Preparation procedures have been developed and are straightforward and simple to use. Etching of oxides is still somewhat challenging. Use of illumination modes other than bright field should always be considered when working with these materials.

DOWNLOAD THE PAPER HERE

Last Updated on Monday, 11 February 2013 20:24

Hits: 1307

Read more: Preparation of Ceramics, Cermets, Nitrides, Borides and Sintered Carbides

Microstructures of Hot and Cold Worked Metals and Alloys

HotWorking Temperatures Hot working occurs at a temperature that is relatively close to the melting point of the metal or alloy. This temperature is normally well above the normal recrystallization temperature. A homogenization cycle may be used prior to hot working to permit alloy diffusion and enhance chemical homogeneity. Too high a temperature must be avoided so that “burning” or grain-boundary liquation (incipient melting) does not occur. The temperature during the last hot working pass is also important as it controls the grain size in the as-rolled microstructure and may influence problems such as “banding” in steels. If the finishing temperature is low, recrystallization will not occur and the grain structure will be coarse and elongated and will contain residual deformation (dislocations). “Warm” working occurs below the recrystallization temperature.

DOWNLOAD THE PRESENTATION HERE

Last Updated on Monday, 11 February 2013 20:22

Hits: 1622

Read more: Microstructures of Hot and Cold Worked Metals and Alloys

Microstructures of Alloys Used in Medical Devices

Alpha Alloys

  • Microstructure of CP Ti, ASTM F 67, Grade 4 (UNS R50700) (longitudinal plane, specimen was annealed at 704 °C) prepared using the three-step method and etched with Kroll’s reagent to reveal the grain structure.
  • Microstructure of CP Ti, ASTM F 67, Grade 2 (UNS R50400; specimen was in the as-rolled condition) prepared using the three-step method and viewed with polarized light to reveal the grain structure. Note the mechanical twins in the grains (arrows).
  • Microstructure of CP Ti, ASTM F 67, Grade 2 (UNS R50400; specimen in the as-rolled condition) prepared using the three-step method, followed by a vibratory polish, and viewed with crossed polarized light to reveal the grain structure. Note the deformation twins (arrows).

DOWNLOAD THE PRESENTATION HERE

Last Updated on Monday, 11 February 2013 20:21

Hits: 1204

Read more: Microstructures of Alloys Used in Medical Devices

Microstructure, Its Evolution

Microstructure - As-Cast, Cold Worked and Annealed, Hot Worked and Annealed and Heat Treated

DOWNLOAD THE PRESENTATION HERE

Last Updated on Monday, 11 February 2013 20:19

Hits: 1214

Microstructure of Nonferrous Alloys

Super Pure Aluminum

Equiaxed alpha grains in the interior of a super-pure aluminum specimen anodized with Barker’s reagent, 30 V dc, 2 min. Viewed with crossed polarized light plus sensitive tint. Original at 50X. The dark spots are intermetallic phases.

DOWNLOAD THE PRESENTATION HERE

Last Updated on Monday, 11 February 2013 20:18

Hits: 1524

Read more: Microstructure of Nonferrous Alloys

Microindentation Hardness Testing - Presentation

Vicker's Test

In 1925, Smith and Sandland of the UK developed a hardness test using a square-based pyramidal shape made from diamond to overcome the limitations of the Brinell test (developed in 1900) that used a spherical hardened steel ball (metals harder than about 48 HRC can not be tested). The indenter shape chosen produced hardness numbers similar to those obtained by the Brinell test.
The first low-load Vickers tester was built by Lips and Sack in 1936.

DOWNLOAD THE PRESENTATION HERE

Last Updated on Monday, 11 February 2013 20:17

Hits: 1275

Read more: Microindentation Hardness Testing - Presentation

resourcesThe articles and presentations that can be down-loaded from this web site are based upon work done by GFV while employed at Bethlehem Steel (1967-1983), Carpenter Technology (1983-1996), Buehler Ltd. (1996-2009) and Struers (2009-Present) and from the authors consulting work for companies such as, Latrobe Steel, Scot Forge, etc., and from his litigation work. GFV's bylined articles appearing in various issues of the ASM Handbook series have been listed here courtesy of ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.

Log in to your account or